Structural Design
Structure is the backbone of any type of building , which bear the entire load of the building including the interior & external feature of the building. The structural design of any building depend upon the basic three factor,
  • Entire Load of the Building.
  • Type of Soil (It's load bearing capacity & Earthquake zone)
  • The Water level of the plot which get constructed

The basic requirements for an efficient structural design is that the response of the structure should be acceptable as per various specifications, i.e., it should at least be a feasible design. There can be large number of feasible designs, but it is desirable to choose the best from these several designs. The best design could be in terms of minimum cost, minimum weight or maximum performance or a combination of these. Many of the methods give rise to local minimum/maximum. Most of the methods, in general give rise to local minimum. This, however, depends on the mathematical nature of the objective function and the constraints.

Optimization Problem

The optimization problem is classified on the basis of nature of equations with respect to design variables. If the objective function and the constraints involving the design variable are linear then the optimization is termed as linear optimization problem. If even one of them is non-linear it is classified as the non-linear optimization problem. In general the design variables are real but some times they could be integers for example, number of layers, orientation angle, etc. The behavior constraints could be equality constraints or inequality constraints depending on the nature of the problem.

Minimum Weight Design of Structural Elements (Simultaneous failure mode theory) One of the earliest techniques employed for the optimization of structural elements is the Simultaneous Failure Mode Theory (SFMT). The approach has been employed to obtain Optimum Design (minimum strength to weight ratio) of elements like columns, plates, beams, cylinders,sheet-stiffener combination etc. The requirement for optimum design is that all the failure modes occur simultaneously for the possible design variables. As the number of design variables increase or the constraints on the behavior variables increase, this approach does not lead to global optimum solution. A structural design problem can be represented as a mathematical model whose constituent elements are parameters, constraints and objective or merit function. The design parameters specify the geometry and topology of the structure and physical properties of its members. Some of these can be independent design parameters and others could be dependent on the independent design variables. Some of the design parameters are chosen by judgment and experience of the designer so as to reduce the size of the problem. This results in large savings in computational time, which in-turn reduces the cost of the design. From the design parameters, a set of derived parameters are obtained which are defined as behavior constraints e.g., stresses, deflections, natural frequencies and buckling loads etc., These behavior parameters are functionally related through laws of structural mechanics to the design variables. The objective or the merit function is formed by the proper choice of the design parameters. This function is either maximized or minimized. For example, if this function is cost or weight, then the function is minimized. On the other hand if it is some other function, it is maximized.

Is structural design very important for a house?

The structural design is a technique, science, or art used in architecture and engineering that typically describes the three-dimensional relationships between structural load-bearing elements such as columns, tension structures, beams and arches. It is concerned with the loads, which are the horizontal and vertical forces that are transmitted to the structure through any of its elements, such as walls or floors. A wall structure design is an architect/engineer who designs a structure based on functionality and safety.

IntroductionA structural design is the art of designing structures that meet the functional and aesthetic requirements of a client. The structural design is the art of designing structures that meet the functional and aesthetic requirements of a client. As such, it involves understanding their wants, needs, and desires, which may be completely different from those identified in most building codes.

A wall structure design works with architects or engineers responsible for development of building plans or drawings. Their job involves analysing various factors including cost constraints, usability issues as well as recommendations made by structural engineers.

Type of structural design for a House:

1. Load transfer: A building’s load must be transferred to the foundation in the correct manner through the structure of a house. Load is defined as the force that an object exerts on another object due to gravity, wind, or pressure. 

2. Foundations: Load-bearing structures must be supported by strong foundations. A building’s foundation is the part of the structure that supports all the other loads. The load is transferred from its columns to walls through beams using braces.

3. Column: Load-bearing elements are called columns. The house roof structure design the weight of floors and walls to bearing points on beams or girders attached to them. The columns can transfer load vertically, but they also have shearing forces due to wind and earthquake forces from vertical direction. 

4. Beams: Beams are horizontal structural elements that can transfer loads. They are supported by columns or walls and are used to support floors. 

5. Floor and Wall: Floor and wall consist of ceiling, window frames, door jambs, electrical boxes etc., which together make up the shell of a building. The single storey house structural design is designed to support uniform load in residential homes while the walls carry wind loads in commercial buildings.

Advantage of structural design:

1. The house structure design makes a building stronger against all kinds of natural disasters.

2. It can make the house more stable in winds and earthquakes.

3. The house structure design helps the building to retain its original form even after years of continuous use.

4. The wall structure design helps the structure to have a good aesthetic value.

5. The house structure design reduces the cost of maintenance and repair of the structure.

6. It improves the user’s experience by making the structure more safe and comfortable for single storey house structural design.

7. The wall structure design makes a building environment-friendly by using low environmental impact materials.

How does structural design make a House as like villas?

The house roof structure design and ceiling need to be strong and durable. The structural design is the most important thing in house designing. The structural designers work on the walls of a house, which can support the weight and pressure from all directions. They use strongest materials for building windows, doors and other parts of the old house. With the help of wall structure design villas are now becoming strong, durable and long lasting.